Six years this month, such a “new fate” arrived in Sadr City, Iraq. The research described in this report was sponsored by the United States Army and conducted by the RAND Arroyo Center. The people that died are the ones who failed to update their mental maps to their new situation. Sadr City. A total of 465 Mahdi Army fighters have been confirmed killed in and around Sadr City since March 25. “Sadr City right now is like a city of ghosts,” Abu Haider al-Bahadili, a Mahdi Army leader told the Washington Post by phone. Sadr City Operations, April - May, 2008 Sep 2, 2008 - Institute for t... To see this map in context, please view Iraq Report #11. Members of the newly arrived 1st Cavalry Division and elements of the 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment were sent out to retake them. We were given the job of driving up and down the roads in our very heavy armored vehicles. The Pardee RAND Graduate School (PRGS.edu) is the largest public policy Ph.D. program in the nation and the only program based at an independent public policy research organization—the RAND Corporation. Urban counterinsurgency requires forces to transition rapidly between offensive, defensive, and stability operations. US forces, from the 759th Military Police Battalion, subsequently regained control of the police stations after running firefights with Mahdi rebels that kille… Heavy armored forces have enduring utility in counterinsurgency and urban operations. The Jaish al Mahdi (JAM) overran GoI outposts in the district and barraged the International Zone with short-range rockets. This mental map is our unique perspective of the world. The resulting month-long fight ultimately reduced the Sadr militia’s combat power and a new 2.4 km wall across the city prevented them from affecting key coalition bases. He blasted the American occupiers and the security deal being negotiated between the U.S. and al-Maliki's government. Some might say that we had reached “steady-state operations,” and a routine of stability. On desktop computers and some mobile devices, you may need to download an eBook reader to view mobi files. The Jaish al Mahdi (JAM) overran GoI outposts in the district and barraged the International Zone with short-range rockets. The authors present the first full operational analysis of the battle and distill insights and lessons that can inform a broader understanding of urban operations, particularly those conducted as part of irregular warfare. U.S. forces seized key enemy rocket-launch sites early in the battle. Naziha al-Dulaimiwas instrumental in turning the vast slums of eastern Baghdad into a massive public works and housing project that came to be known as Revolution … All RAND reports undergo rigorous peer review to ensure high standards for research quality and objectivity. This report is part of the RAND Corporation research report series. Persistent intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance; technical intelligence; and precision-strike capabilities enable the attacker to seize the initiative. GOTTA SEE THIS - War for Enduring Freedom 8/7/04 - Basra, Najaf, Sadr City Insurgents, their freedom of movement rapidly disappearing, were drawn into battle on disadvantageous terms. On April 4, al-Sadr issued a statement calling on his supporters to stop staging demonstration… The enemy had achieved surprise and units were sustaining casualties. Location: Sadr City, Iraq During 2006 to 2008, 15 months, I was part of an engineering unit tasked with conducting route clearance around the greater Baghdad area. The urban terrain allowed good use of U.S. technical advantages. The 2008 Battle of Sadr City wasn't simply one of the most kinetic and violent battles of Operation Iraqi Freedom. Sadr City is part of Baghdad and has an estimated population of 2.4 million. Gonzales relates numerous accounts in which people found themselves in survival situations and continued to cling to their old reality…the one where they were still sitting safely in a plane at 30,000 feet…or the one where a bear hadn’t just wrecked their campsite leaving them stranded. This post is not a narrative of the combat in Sadr City that year, but it does serve as a perfect example of a situation that requires leaders to reframe their mental maps to the new reality. Intelligence efforts, of course, seek to discover these initiatives, but leaders must live in a state of open-ended readiness to adjust and lead their organizations through change. We mostly drove around in RG31’s, Buffalos, and Husky vehicle mounted mine detectors. Instead, through innovative tactics combining high-technology airborne surveillance and strike, elements of siege warfare and vigorous exploitation through civil military operations, coalition forces managed to subdue the uprising with minimum loss to U.S. forces and the civilian population. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors. By March 2008, the urban enclave of 2 million people in northeastern Baghdad had quieted down to the point that just two companies of Stryker Infantry were needed to contain it. Ground maneuver remains indispensable for shaping the battle and achieving decision. In the fourth episode of MWI’s Urban Warfare Project podcast, John Spencer is joined by retired Lt. Col. The last remaining insurgency fighters came under increasingly destructive attack. Forcing noncombatants to evacuate was not an option there was nowhere for them to go. About 270 Iraqi men from 18 … A U.S. soldier makes a retina scan of an Iraqi man in the Shiite enclave of Sadr city, Baghdad, Iraq, on Monday, June 9, 2008. The Iraqi Army enjoyed increasing success in conducting operations on its own. At the time named Revolution City (Arabic: مدينة الثورة‎, romanized: Al-Thawra), it provided housing for Baghdad's urban poor, many of whom had come from the countryside and who had until then lived in appalling conditions. The active portion of the insurgency was weakened in key ways. He said he was talking to friends on a busy street, when the blast occurred. I am disclosing this in accordance with the Federal Trade Commission’s 16 CFR, Part 255: “Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising.”, Getting Your Mental Map Realigned (Sadr City 2008), Unit Leader Development Products & Resources, Realigning Your Mental Map: Sadr City, 2008, Telling the World How Smart We Are (Habit Series #6), The Principles of Military Leadership [Day 3]. It’s our comfort zone; it’s what we rest on; it’s where we feel safe. Integrating special operations forces into conventional operations achieves synergy. The leader of the uprising offered a cease-fire, though many individuals kept fighting. Assistant Policy Researcher; Ph.D. The Jaish al Mahdi (JAM) overran GoI outposts in the district and barraged the International Zone with short-range rockets. Holding onto the prior trend of stability was pointless and risky. We had regular meetings with local leaders and enemy attacks were very low. The fighting has not abated in Sadr City and other Mahdi Army-dominated neighborhoods in northern and eastern Baghdad. Dozens of people were killed by a car bomb in a crowded food market in the Sadr City section of Baghdad on Wednesday. Six years ago, such a “new fate” arrived in Sadr City, Iraq. As the fighting started on April 4, 2004, militiamen ambushed a 1st Cavalry Division patrol and Iraqi policewere expelled from three police stations in Sadr City. The battle forced units that had been mainly focused on counterinsurgency operations to convert overnight into combined-arms teams of armor and mechanized infantry and engage a large […] Sadr City. What are its implications for the U.S. Army in terms of the conduct of future urban operations? The authors of this study highlight an alternative approach to block-by-block clearing missions: a wide area security approach, showcased in the strategies developed in the streets of Sadr City. The RAND Corporation is a research organization that develops solutions to public policy challenges to help make communities throughout the world safer and more secure, healthier and more prosperous. We needed a new plan, and fast. On March 28, the US overseer of Iraq, Paul Bremer, ordered the 60-day closure of Al-Hawza, a newspaper published by Muqtada al-Sadr’s group, on the charges of inciting violence against the occupation. Posted on 08/08/2004 7:53:56 AM PDT by Diogenesis. Much of the overall insurgency had been neutralized. This revenue is used to offset costs associated with maintaining The Military Leader site. From the Soldiers on the street to the Commanding General, the dramatic change in the tactical landscape demanded mental agility, measured emotional response, and poised leadership. From March 23 to May 12, 2008, US Army and Iraqi security forces engaged in an intense urban battle in and around Baghdad’s Shiite neighborhood of Sadr City. Enduring success depends on capable indigenous security forces. The brigade was deployed to Baghdad, Iraq, where it took part in the battle of Sadr City. Disclosure of Material Connection: Some of the links contained on this site are “affiliate links.” This means if you click on the link and purchase the item, I will receive an affiliate commission. The views expressed on this site do not officially represent the views of the US military or the United States Government. The Iraqi security forces have entered the northern regions of Sadr City on Tuesday. The 2008 Battle of Sadr City, which took place in Baghdad nearly 15 months after the beginning of the U.S. "surge" in Iraq, has received relatively little scholarly attention. Technical capabilities must enable decentralized decisionmaking and small-unit initiative. Amazon Kindle is the most popular reader for mobi files. Your email address will not be published. I only recommend products or services I use personally and believe will add value to my readers. First scenario attempt: Sadr City 2008 While both relatively new to the game and the scenario editor; I am announcing the start of a current scenario project based on the the April-May assualt on the Sadr City neighborhood in Baghdad by Iraqi and US military units. In Deep Survival, author Laurence Gonzales describes how the brain assembles a “mental map” of the world based on spatial orientation, experience, emotion, cognition, and every other facet of who we are. Feel free to email the site/content author at admin@themilitaryleader.com. RAND reports present research findings and objective analysis that address the challenges facing the public and private sectors. He converted to Islam in 2008, soon after graduating from Oakton High School in Fairfax County. Protecting the population requires a balance between offensive, defensive, and stability operations. This new paradigm can help the Army focus on what capabilities it will need in the future for such operations. Sadr City was built in Iraq in 1959 by Prime Minister Abdul Karim Qassim in response to grave housing shortages in Baghdad. Success in this battle solidified Iraqi government control over all of Baghdad and throughout Iraq, creating conditions that enabled the United States to realize contemporary operational objectives in Iraq. He. He has been a student of leadership for two decades and designed The Military Leader to help other leaders develop themselves and grow their organizations. Even as American and Iraqi troops are fighting to establish control of the Sadr City section of this capital, the Iraqi government's program to restore basic services like electricity, sewage and trash collection is lagging, jeopardizing the effort to win over the area's wary residents. He criticised the Iraqi government over the siege of Sadr City in March 2008, saying the district's residents had suffered enough. The Military Leader is hosted by an Army Infantry officer with 20 years experience and four deployments to Iraq/Afghanistan. Johnson, David E., M. Wade Markel, and Brian Shannon, The 2008 Battle of Sadr City: Reimagining Urban Combat. the real world. Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. The concept of operation involved isolating an area of operations with concrete T-walls, providing access control. However, the coalition's defeat of Jaish al-Mahdi after six weeks of high-intensity fighting offers important lessons for the U.S. Army as it prepares for future operations. At that time, Sadr City was secured with the use of Strykers from the 1st Squadron, 2d … “Operation Salam is going in accordance with well-planned and organized steps,” Major General Qassem Atta told Voices of Iraq. RAND is nonprofit, nonpartisan, and committed to the public interest. By March 2008, the urban enclave of 2 million people in northeastern Baghdad had quieted down to the point that just two companies of Stryker Infantry were needed to contain it. Subscribe to the weekly Policy Currents newsletter to receive updates on the issues that matter most. Dubbed Operation Salam, or Peace, thousands of Iraqi troops moved into the Mahdi Army stronghold just before dawn and took up positions at strategic points throughout Sadr City. We had regular meetings with local leaders and enemy attacks were very low. I was one of the officers assigned to those two companies at the time. Candidate, Pardee RAND Graduate School, by David E. Johnson, M. Wade Markel, Brian Shannon. Use Adobe Acrobat Reader version 10 or higher for the best experience. Skip to comments. By March 2008, the urban enclave of 2 million people in northeastern Baghdad had quieted down to the point that just two companies of Stryker Infantry were needed to contain it. The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. Drawing upon decades of experience, RAND provides research services, systematic analysis, and innovative thinking to a global clientele that includes government agencies, foundations, and private-sector firms. John Spencer | 03.06.20. DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Chapter V Alphabetical Listing of Blocked Persons, Specially Designated Nationals, Specially Designated Terrorists, Specially Designated Global Terrorists, Foreign Terrorist Organizations, and Specially Designated Narcotics Traffickers AGENCY:. Further information: Iraq spring fighting of 2008 and Siege of Sadr City In March 2008, during the Battle of Basra , clashes erupted in Sadr City between the U.S. and the Mahdi Army . Hundreds of Shi'ites loyal to al-Sadr gathered outdoors [on July 25, 2008] for Friday noon prayer and a heated sermon by an imam in al-Sadr's movement. The lesson is that leaders must be open-minded enough to sense a changing environment, willing to discard what is comfortable and accept the new reality, and then be decisive in the new environment, not the old. Leaders also need to accept that unseen “realities” exist and have momentum along tracks that will ultimately intersect with and affect the organization. at the 2008 Battle of Sadr City between the militia of radical Shi’ite cleric Moqtada al-Sadr and the military forces of Iraq and the US conducting the operation in concert. The 2008 battle for Sadr City offers a different model, in which the challenges were even more formidable than those posed by Grozny and Fallujah. We had regular meetings with local leaders and enemy attacks were very low. But there’s a problem in that our mental map doesn’t always align with “the real map”… i.e. ... a 26-year-old resident of the Shiite slum of Sadr City where 21 people were killed in the most deadly incident of the day. Sadr City. U.S. forces launched an ambitious program of reconstruction intended to convince Sadr City's population to transfer its loyalties to the Government of Iraq. Allied forces continued and improved suppression of enemy rocket fires. Muqtada al-Sadr had likely been planning the April 2008 offensive for months. Rob MacMillan. Eight US troops were killed and 51 more wounded in the bloody battle. In a matter of hours, the tactical situation in Sadr City shifted from low to high-intensity, with engagements akin to the Black Hawk Down depiction of Mogadishu in 1993. Access control would ultimately enable U.S. forces to set the tempo of operations and methodically capture or kill insurgent leaders through targeted raids. Snipers remain an important enabler in urban operations. Multi-National Force - Iraq Commander Gen. Raymond T. Odierno listens to questions from 60 Minutes reporter Leslie Stahl during his visit to the People's Market in the Sadr City District of Baghdad, on Sept. 18, 2008. We were in a comfort zone. “It has turned from a city into a field of battle.” Please note: I reserve the right to delete comments that are offensive or off-topic. The digital map erupted red icons all over the city as our units tried to get a handle on the emerging situation. Stahl, Leslie, "The Battle of Sadr City," 60 Minutes, October 12, 2008. On desktop computers and some mobile devices, you may need to download an eBook reader to view ePub files. Johnson, David E., M. Wade Markel, and Brian Shannon, Homeland Security Operational Analysis Center, Family Caregivers Should Be Integrated into the Health Care Team, Allies Growing Closer: Japan-Europe Security Ties in the Age of Strategic Competition, A Message from Our President, Medical Mistrust, Insulin Prices: RAND Weekly Recap, Benefits and Applications of a Standardized Definition of High-Quality Care, A Bell That Can't Be Unrung: The CARES Act and Unemployment Insurance, Patients Log On to See Their Own Doctors During the Pandemic, Getting to Know Military Caregivers and Their Needs, Helping Coastal Communities Plan for Climate Change, Improving Psychological Wellbeing and Work Outcomes in the UK. But as the saying goes, the enemy gets a vote…and Muqtada al-Sadr’s vote came at the end of March, when he unleashed an hourly barrage of rocket, mortar, IED, RPG, and gunfire attacks on the Green Zone and units in the area. 2008, Sadr City appeared to operate like a separate nation, where Sadr’s word was synonymous with the law. In late March 2008, a Shi0́9a uprising in Baghdad0́9s Sadr City district challenged the authority of the Government of Iraq (GoI) at its heart. The command deployed additional assets from surrounding areas and blocked the routes in/out of the city, then platoons fought their way north to reclaim a key road. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2013. https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR160.html. However, insurgents still enjoyed considerable freedom of movement making allied forces vulnerable to attack from unsecured portions of Sadr City. The eruption of violence threatened to draw U.S. forces into a battle in a closely packed urban area inhabited by an estimated 2.4 million people, many of whom strongly supported the GoI's main antagonist, Moqtada al-Sadr. In 2008, Lt. Col. MacMillan was serving as the battalion operations officer of 1-68 Armor in 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 4th Infantry Division. On April 3, Bremer sent troops to al-Sadr’s home and arrested Mustafa Yaqoubi, a top lieutenant,sparking further protests. GOTTA SEE THIS-War Endur.Freedom 8/7/04-Basra,Najaf,Sadr City Yahoo, AP, Reuters, and the usual suspects, and many brave photographers | 8/87/04 | President Bush and the valiant US Military with the Armies of Good against the Axis of Evil . U.S. casualties and collateral damage could have been substantial. Sadr and his political movement have become increasingly isolated since the fighting began in Basrah, Baghdad, and the South. 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